Volume 4, Issue 2, 2020

Letter to Editor
E-Learning and Smart Revision Portal for Zambian Primary and Secondary School Learners: A Digitalized Virtual Classroom in the COVID-19 Era and Beyond
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20017,
ABSTRACT: The emergence of coronavirus (COVID-19) and its rapid spread across Asia, Europe, United States of America and parts of Africa led to many republics implementing partial and complete lockdowns of their countries as part of the many solutions to curbing the pandemic. Internal measures included closure of all learning institutions and restricted mobility of citizens. Zambia responded by closure of schools and institutions of higher learning, and a partial lockdown. As an alternative to on-campus learning, some higher learning institutions in Zambia introduced E-learning for their students. This was not the case for primary and secondary schools until mid- Aprils 2020 when educational responses started being implemented. This paper highlights the E-learning and smart revision facility, a virtual classroom for Zambian primary and secondary schools.
Research Article
Rethinking Education in the New Normal Post-COVID-19 Era: A Curriculum Studies Perspective
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20018,
ABSTRACT: All sectors worldwide, including education, have been devastated by the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic. As we approach the new normal in the post-COVID-19 era, there is a need to consider education anew in the light of emerging opportunities and challenges. Thus, this short article attempts to rethink education in the new normal post-COVID-19 era through the perspectives of curriculum studies. The implications of the continuing crisis to the four elements of curriculum - goal, content, approach, and evaluation - are discussed. Some emerging options may be cogently viewed within the perspectives of these elements. Aside from the lens curriculum studies, this paper suggests that other aspects of education should be explored further to better reconsider education in this new era in human history.
Research Article
Spread of COVID-19 Pandemic in Zambia: A Mathematical Model
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20019,
ABSTRACT: There has been a cumulative increase in the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases, recoveries as well as deaths in Zambia as declared by the Ministry of Health on regular basis. Based on the available statistical information, this article will discuss a mathematical model concerning the spread of COVID-19 in Zambia. To predict the spread of COVID-19 in Zambian provinces, a multiple regression analysis describing the inter-play of factors influencing the increase in the number of cases is used to formalize the relationship. To ascertain the accuracy of the mathematical model used, exponential graphs regarding the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) since its arrival over time in Zambia were obtained.
The Mental Health of School Students and the COVID-19 Pandemic
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20020,
ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the social distancing procedures that many countries have implemented have caused disruptions to daily activities. The first preventive procedures taken by responsible authorities are the closing of schools. In spite of these preventive procedures may be considered critical to contain the rapid outbreak of COVID-19, they will undoubtedly have short and long term consequences for the mental health of school students. The movement restrictions, school closures and stay-at-home during the COVID-19 pandemic will likely lead to a rise in the rates of domestic violence, loneliness, depression, fear, panic and anxiety, and substance use among school students. In this context, some procedures should be taken into consideration to help the students in minimizing the mental health consequences such as develop ways to interact with students to overcome loneliness and bridge the social distance. In addition, intervening in the event of violence cases involving children or their families because those sectors of the community may have not an opportunity to report and order urgent help.
Research Article
Effect of F/M Ratio on the Performance of Sequencing Batch Reactor for Dairy Wastewater Treatment
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20021,
ABSTRACT: Indian economy has huge contribution of dairy industry. About one fourth of nation’s income is contributed by dairy. Milk processing involves various operations starting from receiving point to disposal end. This whole process demands fresh water leading to wastewater generation and this quantity is highest amongst all industries. Dairy wastewater is composed of organic matter, nutrients, suspended & dissolved solids and high COD, BOD. So it becomes necessary to remove the pollution load before its disposal. Some advanced treatments like SBR, gas stripping, surface filtration show better results and are effective than conventional treatments. In this study, SBR process was used to treat dairy wastewater. SBR process has flexibility, minimal footprint and it conducts all operations like equalization, primary clarification, biological treatment and secondary settling in a single reactor. Time phased Fill and draw type lab scale SBR model was operated with 12 liter total volume and 10 liter working volume. Before loading dairy wastewater to the reactor, loading of sewage was done for acclimatization of microorganisms. Dairy wastewater was collected from equalization tank of an Effluent Treatment Plant of dairy industry. It was analysed for various parameters for 15 days to know the variations in characteristics. For the treatment of dairy wastewater reactor was operated under varying MLSS from 6000 to 8000 mg/L thereby under varying F/M ratio and named as phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 with 20% Volume Exchange Ratio. Total cycle time provided was 6 hour in which fill was instantaneous, aeration for 5 hour 30 minutes, settling for 25 minutes and 5 minute decant. By keeping all the remaining parameters constant, only F/M ratio was varied. Maximum removal efficiencies for parameters like COD, BOD, TDS, and TSS were determined for each phase. For phase 1, 2 and 3 maximum removal efficiencies were achieved at F/M 0.16, 0.14 and 0.13 per day respectively. But among all three phases, 3rd phase gave maximum removal efficiency at F/M 0.13. Hence it was concluded that SBR performs better at higher MLSS concentration or at lower F/M ratio in order to achieve disposal standards.
Research Article
Will COVID-19 Bring the Armageddon? Expanding Psychosocial Support and Environmental Care: An Autoethnographic Research
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20022,
ABSTRACT: This article presents an autoethnographic examination on how people are living and experiencing the turnabout in their lives during the COVID-19 pandemic. From the educational landscape going towards faith in mankind to the psychological, social, environmental, and philosophical arena, this article gives reflections on hopes for a democratic future. In sharp contrast, the post-pandemic world is open to social disparities, digital divides, health inequalities, and social crises, but there are also new possibilities and realities. The next generation of students should be educated to be humane, to face the fear of the unknown, and to protect planet earth from biopolitical ecology and neoliberalism. Until such time, the article calls on unity in the fight against COVID-19 while maintaining a balance between reality and disorientation and holding into a psychological blanket of social support through cyberspace amid the crises.
Research Article
Students Perception of Mobile Learning during COVID-19 in Bangladesh: University Student Perspective
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20023,
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to measures the student’s perception of using mobile for learning during COVID-19 in Bangladesh especially at the university student’s perspective. During the COVID-19 pandemic period, mobile learning may help the students to fulfill the study gap. Due to COVID-19 pandemic 213 countries, higher education has affected all over the world of June 2020. Although all of the developed countries considered mobile learning as an effective tool for education, it is not used properly in Bangladesh. This survey method conducted on 416 students from different university students in Bangladesh to understand the student’s perception of using mobile phones as a learning system. The findings of this study show that most of the students at the university level have a positive perception of m-learning. This study revealed that m-learning is very helpful to recover the study gap during this COVID-19 pandemic time and the findings of this study will help the education policymaker as well as the educational institutions to incorporate mobile learning technology for the whole system where social media may enhance the process of teaching and learning.
Research Article
Flexible Learning as an Instructional Modality in Environmental Science Course during COVID-19
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20024,
ABSTRACT: The novel coronavirus has forced the closure of schools and universities among countries with COVID-19 cases. Such move has reshaped the contour of education by shifting from face-to-face instruction to full online learning or flexible learning. Among the latter modalities of instruction, flexible learning (FL) appears to be the most practical because it lacks restriction of time, place, and pace of study. This study then aimed to explore the effectiveness of FL as an instructional modality in environmental science course following the action research method. In particular, perception on FL and environmental attitudes were evaluated at the end of the course. Results revealed that FL promotes authentic learning, active learning, and student autonomy. In terms of environmental attitudes, there maybe contrasting views in environmental issues presented to them but their views were anchored on their readings suggesting that the students read the course materials even without the presence of the teachers.
Literature Review
COVID-19 and its Impact on Education: Challenges from Industry 4.0
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20025,
ABSTRACT: The industrial revolution is now entering its fourth phase. The rapid development of science and technology has a big impact on human life. Many conveniences and innovations are obtained with the support of digital technology. Education today is a phenomenon that responds to the needs of the industrial revolution with new curriculum adjustments according to the COVID-19 situation. The curriculum is able to open the window of the world through its grasp for example utilizing the internet of things (IoT). On the other hand, teachers also get more references and teaching methods. For the education sector, the presence of industry 4.0 is expected to be able to realize smart education through enhancing and equalizing the quality of education, expanding access, and relevance in realizing world-class. To realize this learning interaction is carried out through blended learning, project-based learning, and flipped classroom (public interaction and digital interaction) so that these challenges can be overcome in order to prevent the impact of pandemic transmission.
Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on College and University Students: A Global Health and Education Problem
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20026,
ABSTRACT: The origin of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan China has been reported to be one of the lethal pandemics the world has ever faced. Though the first case was reported in December 2019, COVID-19 spread so rapidly to the majority of countries by March 2020 and was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. COVID-19 pandemic led to increased morbidity and mortality within a very short period of time. COVID-19 pandemic caused schools, colleges, and universities to come to a closure in order to avoid further transmission and spread of the disease. The physical closure of schools, colleges, and universities has impacted students in several ways in that some students have reported suffering from anxiety, depression, and mood swings. COVID-19 has disrupted social interaction among students and has affected their family life. These impacts on students will eventually affect their academic performance and progression. Thus, learning institutions should put in measures to help students recover from the impacts of COVID-19.
Research Article
Environmental Knowledge, Ecosystem and Attitude Toward Environmentally Friendly Behavior for Coastal Community
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20027,
ABSTRACT: This research was a survey research by using quantitative approach, where the instrument was environmental acquaintance test and questionnaire. The research was conducted in coastal area in Makassar such as: Biringkanaya district (Untia urban village), Tamalate district (Barombong urban village), Ujung Tanah district (Cambayya urban village). The population of this research was the coastal communities in Makassar who work as fishermen for generations. The result indicated that there were influences between environmental knowledge, knowledge about ecosystem, knowledge about pollution and environmental attitude with environmentally friendly behavior. The sample of this research was 150 head of households. The result showed that the environmental knowledge of coastal community in Makassar was in medium category. Knowledge about pollution was categorized as medium, environmentally friendly behavior was in medium category and so does environementally friendly behavior were in medium category.
Research Article
Analysis and Design of Continuous Water Distribution System against Existing Intermittent Distribution System for Selected Area in Pandharpur, M.S., INDIA
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20028,
ABSTRACT: In infrastructural development the public drinking water distribution network which includes pipes, bents, valves, pumps, tanks etc. is one of the major investments. The design, modeling of distribution network with efficient outcome is an important task. Therefore, the present study is aimed at design of continuous as well as intermittent water distribution systems with adequate water pressure with the use of WaterGEMS Vi8 software. The study is carried out for Manisha Nagar and Padmavati in Pandharpur, Maharashtra. The system comprised of a pipeline network consisting of one source node and several demand nodes is considered to find its optimal geometrical layout which delivers known demands from source to consumers over a long period of time. The effect of forecasted resident population and floating population on demand, head loss gradient, pressure gradient is analyzed. This study is carried out for immediate stage - Year 2021, intermediate stage - Year 2036 and final stage - Year 2051. From the analysis it is observed that, as population increases from year 2021 to 2051, the demand, head loss gradient and pressure development increases.
The COVID-19 Pandemic in Algeria: Lessons and Perspectives
Aquademia, 2020, 4(2), ep20029,
ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has provoked a real mayhem in the world. This "new" situation has shown multiple missing links in different fields such as the health and scientific research. In this way, multiple countries have seen their health systems capacities being stretched while no efficient treatment or vaccine is available until now despite the enormous sums spent in research. This pandemic may serves as a lesson which may push national authorities to "review" their strategies in different fields such as health and scientific research to be prepared for eventual future risks. In this context, missing links, lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic in Algeria and perspectives are discussed in this manuscript.